|el vs. de|
|el = to come out of a place or thing, meaning movement, "stemming from", or "to arise from a change". for example, "I left the car" (i came out of the car), "it comes from China" (i brought it outside of China; it came here from somewhere else), "he came out of the box (he popped out)", "i made it out of a piece of wood (out of the wood appeared something else)", "he came out of nowhere". de = "of", "from", without movement. this word can create ownership (the leg of the dog), or set apart viewpoint (from your seat, you can see the sports field) (he sat a distance away from me), and say what material something is made from (made of/from wood). what is movement and non-movement in this case? basically it's if an action was inflicted upon the item or not, or if there was an action required in order to get to the place where we are now. we used to have this distinction clearly in english but it's almost gone now and only keeps the rule in a few places. for example, we would never say "i came of the house" or "I went of the lawn to the street" or "i walked here of the neighbouring town" because "from" originally only meant "movement" and "of" originally only meant "non-movement". notice how "to come, to go, to walk" are movement words (signifying movement or changing locations, etc.) likewise, we don't say " specifically with countries, and materials, there are two different ways just as in english. "made from wood / made of wood", "originate from a country / be a member of a country" etc. this is simply because there's two different ways of looking at things. the item is made from wood (a piece of wood's state was changed, it was carved etc) or it is of wood (no matter how much one changes it, it's still going to be wood at the core so in fact there was no movement/action involved).|
|por, etc. - how to say "for"|
|2.) por and the other various ways of translating the English "for" al = towards, to. this is used when we say "i'm making it for her" (i'm giving it to(wards) her in the future). same for "it's intended for..." (i tend it to be sent to(wards) this kind of person...) por = in order to, for the sake of. "in order to get a good grade, i have to study". "for the sake of not failing, i have to study". thus this can also be used towards people, as in "i'm doing it for her = i'm doing it for her sake = i'm doing it so she doesn't have to, or to improve her well-being, etc." pro = owing to, on the grounds of, due to, thanks to. "due to the rain, even my panties got soaked" = thanks to the rain..." we still have the phrase "pro bono", which is actually "pro bono publico" and means "for the sake of the public good (i work for free, for the public's sake)".|
|how to say "possibly, probably"|
"kio estas la diferenco inter probable, kredeble, kaj verŝajne?"
probable = nova vorto. antaŭe, oni diris »ŝajne« anstataŭe. do ĉi vorto estas nur duobla vorto de »ŝajni«.... sed la vortaro tekstas ke »probabli« estas »ebleco« pri matematikoj
kredeble = oni povas opinii ke la aĵo/afero estas vere/vera. to believe. (kredi dion, ne »supozi«!).
do, »la vero estas kredeble«, »Satan kredeble ekzistas, laŭ kristism«, »kredeble li ne laboristo iĝis, poste tiu (malbona) okazo«
ŝajni = to seem, to appear to be, to give the impression that (in all sense except for appearance, where we use "vidigi").|
Feign, pretend, ŝajnigi.
Improbable, ne verŝajna. (ne ŝajnas vere)